Nursing Research and Statistics Important Definition


1.  Research: Research is a caretul investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any search of knowledge.

2.  Problem solving: Problem solving is a systematic approach to a solution or alleviation of the simple, complex, inmmediate, long term problems characterized by sequential execution of the following observation through action process.

3Nursing research: It is detined as systematic, objective process of analyzing phenomenon of importance to nursing.

4.  Scientific method: A set of orderly, systematic controlled procedure for acquiring dependable, emperical and typically quantitative information.
5.  Research process: A technique used to structure a study & to gather & analyze information in systematic fashion.

6. Research problem - refers to some difficulty, which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same.

7.  Research objectives - are clear, concise declarative statement that are expressed in present tense.

9. Literature review : Review of literature is a summary of current theoretical and scientific knowledge about particular problem, which includes what is known and not known about the problem.

10.  CINAHL- Cumulative index to mursing and allied health literature, 

11. Abstracts: These are summarized articles which have appeared in other journals.
12. Grey Literature : Refers to studies with more limited distribution such as conference papers, unpublished reports, dissertation.

13. Research design is a blue print for conducting the study that maximises control over factors that could interfere with the validity of the findings.

14.  Quantitative research design The investigation of phenomenon that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving rigorous and controlled design.

15.  Qualitative research design: The investigation of phenomenon typically in an in depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of rich narrative material using a flexible research design.

16.  Experimental research design: A design in which the researcher controls (manipulates) the independent variable and randomly assigns subjects to different conditions.

17.  Non experimental design: Design in which the researcher collects the data without introducing an intervention.

18.  Randomisation : The assignment of subjects to treatment conditions in random manner (ie. in a manner deternmined by chance alone) it is also called random assignment.

19.  Manipulation : An intervention or treatment introduced by researcher in an experimental study to assess its impact on the dependent variable.

20.  Control : The process of holding constant confounding influences on the dependent variable under study.

21.  Confounding variable : An exteaneous variable that confounds or obscuses the relationship between the central variables of a study and that needs to be controlled.

22. Population: The entire set of individual or of objects having some common characteristics.

23. Sample : A subset of population selected to participate on a study.

24. Samnling : The process of selectinga portion of the population to represent the entire population.

25. Sampling error: The fluctuation of the value of statistics from one sample to another drawn from the same population.

26. Sampling  bias: Distortion that arise when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.

27. Samoling frame: A list of all the elements in the population from which the population is drawn.

28.  Probability sampling: The selection of sampling units (participants) from the population using random procedures.

29.  Non probability sampling: The selection of sampling units from population using non-random procedure.

30.  Data: The piece of information obtained in the study.

31 Case study: Aresearch method involving a through, indepth analysis of an individual group,or other social unit.

32. Questionnaire: A document used to gather selt report data via selt administration of question.

33. Schedule : Is the name given to a list of questions to which responses are obtained from the respondent by the investigator in face to check lists.

34.  Rating scale: A scale that require ratings of an object or concept along a continuum.

35. Scale:Scale is a set of symbols or numerals constructed so that symbols or numerals can be assigned by to rule to characteristics of individuals to whom scale is applied.

36. Likert scale: A composite measure of attitudes involving the summation and score on a set of tems that respondents rate for their degree of aggrement or disaggrement.

37.  Pilot study: A small scale version, or trial run, done in preparation for a major study.

38. Item alalysis: The process of determining the effectiveness of each test item by analysing the Samples response to the item.