Research proposal is written for the purpose of conducting research and for funding. 

Research proposal is a document specifying what the research proposes to study. It communicates the research problem, its significance planned procedures for solving the problem, and when funding is sought.

A research proposal is a written document, which outlines the plan of research study. Proposals are written before the research project is started. Proposals
serves several purposes

  • Teachers, academic bodies, funding agencies or the scientific community can examine what the researcher intends to do.
  •  It helps researcher to get a clear and precise views of what she intends to do, how does the person actually conduct, how does she monitor the progress of work. This is also a university requirement for a student researchers.
  •  Funding agencies that sponsor research usually allot fund on a competitive basis. They go through the proposal to judge the relevance and significance of the study as well as the researcher's competency of conducting such research project. The document also becomes a contact for the projects.


1, Background of the Problem-
This will explain how the proposed research builds upon what has already been done in an area. The background material should strengthen the investigator's arguments concerning the significance of the study, and should orient the reader to what is already known about the problem and how the proposed research
will increase that knowledge. It should have a discussion of highly selective studies which are clearly related to what the investigator proposes to study. A well integrated, thoughtful and critical review should be given. Details of related literature reviewed need to be given in the appendix.

2. Statement of the Problem-
The statement of the problem which the investigator wants to study, need to be stated clearly and concisely. The statement should clearly indicate the key variables in the study, specify the nature of population being studied and suggest the possibility of empirical testing.

Effective problem statements answer the question "Why does this research need to be conducted"
 You will focus on issues relating to the central theme, identifying the knowledge gaps. 

  • Specify the knowledge gaps 
  • Raise research questions that you want to answer 
  • Specify the rational for your study, specifically how you are going to fill the knowledge gap

3. Purpose of the Study-
The investigator should state clearly the reasons for undertaking the research. A specific research study may have two or more goals. .

4. Objectives of the Study-
This should include the specific objectives to be achieved in the proposed study. The objectives should be clearly stated in achievable and measurable terns. The objectives will provide the criteria against which the proposed research methods can be assessed. Objectives should be formed on the basis of specific questions to be answered.

  • Defines the aim of the research broadly.
  • Can also be broken down into specific objectives. 
  • The objectives of a research project summarize what is to be achieved by the study. 
  •  Objectives should be closely related to the statement of the problem.
  •  Trying to begin with "The purpose of this study is ... may help to direct the mind. 

5. Assumptions-
An assumption is a statement whose truth is either considered self-evident or has been satisfactorily established by earlier research. This will act as a foundation of accepted knowledge. 

6. Conceptual Framework Research Proposal-
The investigator should explain the framework of concepts on which the problem is linked. The framework also should explain the interrelationships among the phenomena under investigation.

7.  Definition of Terms-
This refers to the clarification of the terms in such a way that they are potentially observable. It is the specification of the operations which the researcher must perform in order to collect the required information.

8, Hypotheses-
Hypotheses is a statement of the expectation of a researcher regarding stated clearly on the basis of objectives of the study.

  • Hypotheses are tentative statements/solutions or explanations of the formulated proble
  • Distinguish between the dependent and independent variables.
  •  The hypothesis is subject to test, i.e., to confirmation or rejection on empirical grounds.
  •  The term question implies an interrogative statement that can be answered by data 
  • Focus on the relationships between the variables.
  •  Important to visualize the expectation of the result. Just as conclusions must be grounded in the data, hypotheses must be grounded in the theory.
  •  Hypotheses are more relevant to theory based research and are typically used in quantitative inquiries. 

9.  Research Methodology-

 This part should explain clearly and completely the following:

  •  Selection of research methodlstrategies
  • Selection of research design
  • Research setting
  • Population, sample and sampling technique
  •  Selection and development of study instruments, including reliability and validity testing of the instruments.
  •  Result of pilot study
  • Plan for data collection
  •  Plan for data analysis
  •  Work Plan

This is the plan according to which the various tasks and sub-tasks will be accomplished by the investigator.

11. Budget-
This should give the proposed expenses towards the investigation in terms of money, material and manpower.

12. Ethical Considerations-

13. Reference and Appendices-