Diagnosis of Pregnancy
Duration of pregnancy is 10 lunar months/9 calendar months and 7 days or 280 days/40 weeks. But true Gestation period is 266 days(280-14 days)and this is known as Fertilization or Ovulation age
A fetus passes through 3 period in his whole intrauterine life.
- Ovular/Germinal period- Ovulation के बाद के पहले 2 सप्ताह (first 2 weeks after ovulation)
- Embryonic period- Ovulation के बाद 3 weeks से 8 weeks तक का समय (ie.10 weeks of gestation/Till 10 weeks from LMP)
- Fetal period-Ovultion के बाद 8 वें सप्ताह से delivary तक
नोट - Fetus की length को नापने के लिए 20 weeks( Gestation age) से पहले CRL(Crown-rump length ) use करते है|तथा उसके बाद CHL(crown-heel-length) use करते है।
Diagnosis of Pregnancy in 1st trimester(first 12 weeks)
- Amenorrhoea- Absence of cyclic bleeding.
- Morning sickness-Appears soon after the missed period and rarely lasts beyond the first trimester due to HCG.
- Increase frequency of micturition at 8-12 week. it disappears after 12 th week, beacuse at that time uterus straightens up.
- Breast discomfort-(seen at 6-8 week) Feeling of fullness and pricking sensation.
- Pigmentation of nipple and the areola, sometimes thick yellowish secretion (Colostrum) ca be expressed (12th week onwards)
Note-Uterus remains in a pelvic organ untill 12th week.
Sign seen at 1st Trimester-
Jacquemier's sign/Chadwick sign-Jacquemier's sign - a purplish discoloration of the mucous membrane of the vagina that occurs early in pregnancy. 8th week of pregnancy.
Osiander's sign-Increase pulsation felt through the lateral fornices.8th week of pregnancy.and in Pelvic inflammatory diasese.
Goodell's sign-Softening of cervix(cervix feels likelip of mouth wheras in non-pregnants feels like tip of nose). 6th to 8th week of pregnancy and O.C. pills users.
Palmer's sign-Regular and rhythmic uterine contraction which can be felt on bimamual examination.It is seen from 4th to 8th week of pregnancy.
Hegar's sign-On bimanual examination with 2 fingers in ant.fornix and fingers of other hand behind the uterus. the abdominal and vaginal fingers seen to appose below the body of uterus it occurs because of softening of uterus. It is seen from 4th to 8th week of pregnancy.
Ladin's sign-In which there is softening in the midline of the uterus anteriorly at the junction of the uterus and cervix. It is seen from 6th week of pregnancy.
McDonald's sign-The uterus become Flexible at uterocervical junction.at 7-8 weeks of pregnancy.
Von Braun- Fernwald's sign -is a clinical sign in which there is an irregular softening and enlargement of the uterine fundus during early pregnancy. It occurs at 5–8 weeks gestation.