Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System-

Cardiology- Study of cardiac system is known as Cardiology.

Cardiovascular System consist-

  • Heart
  • Blood vesscle

Abnormality in blood vesscle (Arteries and veins) is known as vascular disorder.

Ischemic heart disease (IHD)-In Ischemic heart disease Myocardial layer of Heart is effected and due to myocardial Ischemia decrease perfusion and blood supply of heart.


  1. Myocardial Ischemia
  2. Coronary Artery Disease
  3. Necrosis (Myocardial Infraction)

Angina Pectoris -It is a type of IHD characterized by chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease. Angina is a symptom of a condition called myocardial ischemia. It occurs when the heart muscle (myocardium) doesn't get as much blood (hence as much oxygen) as it needs. If it is not treated later lead MI.

Myocardial Infraction-Life threatening situation in which permanent cessation of Myocardium due to Irreversible distruction of myocardium.

 Myocardial infarction (MI)- is the condition in which insufficient blood flows to the heart (or a part of the heart) and causes damage to the cardiac muscles. It is characterized by chest pain and discomfort and may lead to an acute shortness of breath.

Coronary Artery Disease-

Atherosclerosis-Collection of Fat/Lipid/ cholesterol in coronary Artery is known as Atherosclerosis.

Or Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of arteries from a build -up of plaque, usually made up of cholesterol, fatty substances, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin, inside the arteries. 

Risk Factor of IHD and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)-

  • Modifiable Risk Factor-
  • Non Modifiable


  1. Modifiable Risk Factor-

✔Obesity- Reason of Obesity

    1-Sedentary life style 2-Physical infective lead to ↑ Lipid, ↑ BMI ↑LDL ↑Cholesterol cause → CAD


  1. Smoking
  2. Alcohol
  3. Tobacco
  4. Nicotine

✔️Hypertension-              Increase blood pressure


                         More pressure in Blood vessel


                       Risk of blood vessel injury (endothelium)


                              Inflammatory reaction


                          Phagocytosis and migrane of foamy macrophages


                   Platelet aggregation and formation of fibrous cap   


                   Again repeat of same event at same place for countless time      


                   Creation of plague atheroma and lesion     


                                          Partial occlusion                   

Hyper cysteinemia- Excessive homocysteine levels in blood. 

Diabetic mellitus- Diabetes mellitus is a condition defined by persistently high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. There are several types of diabetes. 


B. Non Modifiable risk factor

  • Genetic Abnormality
  • Age-Decrease elasticity/flexibility in old age lead to endothelial injury, Hypertension.
  • Liver- All function diminished so decrease HDL and increase LDL
  • Renal-Decrease GFR lead to Hypervolemia cause Hypertension
  • Gender-due to hormonal in male Testosterone and Androgen lead to CAD in Female estrogen increase metabolism more risk of CHD in Menopause